People, Land and Water at the
Headwaters of the
Rappahannock River Basin
 Stream miles and pond areas were calculated based on the National Hydrographic
Dataset. The wetlands data are from the National Wetlands Inventory, and these
areas overlap with the ponds data.
 See Section 9.1 for explanation of Impaired Streams.
 Winer, R., T. Brown and P. Sturm. Bush River Watershed Management Plan.
Center for Watershed Protection, 8391 Main St. Ellicott City, MD 21043
 The Zoning Ordinance defines development as follows:
“DEVELOPMENT — Any man-made change to improved or unimproved real estate,
including but not limited to buildings or other structures, the placement of
mobile homes, streets and other paving, utilities, filling, grading,
excavation, mining, dredging or drilling operations.”
 The watershed assessment methodology developed by the Center for Watershed
Protection focuses on impermeable surfaces which make a watershed vulnerable.
We modified that methodology to focus on factors more applicable in this area.
 National Land Cover Classification System.
 National Land Cover Database, 2001.
“Riparian Buffer Width, Vegetative Cover, and Nitrogen Removal Effectiveness:
A Review of Current Science and Regulations” By Paul M.
Mayer , Steven K. Reynolds, Jr. and Timothy J. Canfield. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management
Research Laboratory Ada, Oklahoma 74820
 Actually, the Mississippi River is the only tenth order stream in the U.S. What the authors intend here is to emphasize that a very large river is made up of
many smaller tributary streams. The smallest streams (first and second and
third order) are the type of streams in Rappahannock County.
 The subwatersheds delineation was based on several factors, including
topography, size of areas, and USGS Hydrologic Units (HUC).
 In the subwatershed assessment model developed by the Center for Watershed
Protection, called “Watershed Vulnerability Analysis”, the vulnerability of a
subwatershed is based on the percentage of impervious land cover in the
subwatershed. Their method is typically used in situations where the
watersheds are already compromised due to development, and the goal is to
identify areas that can be restored to some extent. Instead of this model, we
devised an alternative approach, more suitable for rural headwaters watersheds,
that looks at the factors that protect the subwatershed, and we call this the
“Subwatershed Protection Analysis.”
 Currently the VOF is accepting easements on properties of 100 acres or larger.
Other agencies that accept smaller parcels in easement include the Virginia
Department of Forestry (currently 50 acre minimum) and the Virginia Department
of Historic Resources (no minimum acreage, within an officially designated
 Residential zoning of one house per acre would result in an average impervious
cover of about 14%, according to Cappiella & Brown (2001). Less than 1% of
the land area of the county is so zoned.
 VOF records as of May 8, 2008.
 The Upper North Fork has more points than the theoretical maximum, due to
rounding in converting from percentages to protection points. It lies about
96% in the SNP, and nearly 70% of its area outside the SNP is in conservation
 The survey instrument and report on the results is available on the RappFLOW web
 Paradis, A., J. Elkinton,K. Hayhoe, and J. Buonaccorse. 2007. Role of winter
temperature and climate change on the survival and future range expansion of
the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) in eastern North America.
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change. Published online Oct.
11, 2007. www.springerlink.com/content/1381-2386.
 “Guidelines for helping nonagricultural landowners” by Tim Bondelid. 2007.
Available at http://www.rappflow.org/PDF/Guidelines%20for%20NonAg%20Evaluation.pdf
 Report is available at http://www.rrregion.org/pdf/publications/environment/tmdl/development/TMDL%20Development%20-%20Rappahannock%20River%20Basin%202008.pdf
 Page 17 in “2007 State of the Forest” Virginia Department of Forestry.
 For more information contact Hal Hunter. firstname.lastname@example.org
 Page 22 in the report available at http://www.rappflow.org/PDF/pilot_study_sharable_V9.pdf
 For a non-shellfish water body to be in
compliance with Virginia’s revised bacteria standards (as published in the
Virginia Register Volume 18, Issue 20) the following criteria shall apply to
protect primary contact recreational uses (VADEQ, 2000): • Interim Fecal
Coliform Standard: Fecal coliform bacteria shall not exceed a geometric
mean of 200 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 mL of water for two or more samples
over a calendar month nor shall more than 10% of the total samples taken during
any calendar month exceed 400 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 mL of water. • Escherichia
coli Standard: E. coli bacteria concentrations for freshwater shall
not exceed a geometric mean of 126 counts per 100 mL for two or more samples
taken during any calendar month and shall not exceed an instantaneous single
sample maximum of 235 cfu/100mL. During an assessment period, conventional
parameters such as bacteria require at least two exceedences of the standard,
and an exceedance of greater than 10.5% of the total samples before a water is
listed as impaired (VADEQ Assessment Guidance, 2006). If these conditions are
met, the stream segment associated with that station is classified as impaired
and a TMDL must be developed and implemented to bring the segment into
compliance with the water quality standard. The original impairment designation
to Hughes River (VAN-E03R-01), Hazel River (VAN-E04R-01), Rush River
(VAN-E05R-01), Hazel River (60076), Rappahannock River (VAN-E01R-03), Rappahannock
River (VAN-E08R-04), Rappahannock River (60081), Craig Run (VAN-E08R-03),
Browns Run (VAN-E08R-03), and Marsh Run (VAN-E08R-01) was based on exceedances
of an earlier fecal coliform standard that included a numeric single sample
 B.B. Ross, J.E. Woodard, T.A. Dillaha, T.V. Williams, H.W. Smith, and D.L.
Southall. “Evaluation of Household Water Quality in Rappahannock County, Virginia.” June 1992. Household Water Quality Series 3. Department of Agricultural
Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
 Source: MapTech. “Bacterial source tracking analyses to support Virginia’s TMDL’s”. 2005.
 Source: Rappahannock Comprehensive Plan 2004
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